Canavan played alongside Shane Duffy, the former Iron loanee, in central defence at the Sligo Showgrounds.
Defeat, which came via a late winner from Oguzhan Ozyakup, means Noel King's side must now win both their remaining games - in Hungary and Italy - in early September.
Republic of Ireland: I. McLoughlin (MK Dons); J. Egan (Sunderland), S. Duffy (Everton), N. Canavan (Scunthorpe United), G. Cunningham (Bristol City) - capt; C. Henderson (Arsenal), R. Towell (Unattached), E. O'Kane (Bournemouth); R. Brady (Manchester United), J. Collins (Swindon Town), A. White (Leeds United).
Sub: S. Scannell (Huddersfield Town) for Henderson (82 mins)
Turkey: Karabulut; Cek, Akca, Aziz, Nizam; Uysal, Aydogou; Yilmaz, Colak, Bayram; Demir.
Subs: Ozyakup for Colak (61 mins), Yildirim for Bayram (76 mins), Odabas for Yilmaz (81 mins)